I haven’t tried passive electrets for a while using the onboard bias if when you mean electret you mean just a cheap budget 3.5mm non active couple of $ mic.
Prob haven’t tested the cheap white one with a passive mic but it should work OK as my main problem was gain as found it pretty poor.
I think I have got just about every module currently avail and have the SSM2167 which is really interesting as it has a noise gate & compressor that I never tested.
Board seems to work well with built in values but you can cut tracks and add to pots so you get adjustable control over noise gate and compressor level, which I never did.
Grabbing the data sheet https://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/SSM2167.pdf and you can sort of work the board out quite easily when it in the hand.
The TS472 is a differential amp for longer distances with +/- signal and gnd and needs a differential input so cancel that one.
I will rummage through my gear and drag out the white usb soundcard and give it a test with a passive mic and post the wav here so you can hear results.
You should not have a lot of noise something somewhere is prob not right, but might never of tested a passive mic as stopped using because of poor gain.
I also found the Max4466 module board I got was awful but from memory I think the circuit was a noise threshold circuit not actually a standard mic.
Prob easiest is either MEMS Microphone https://www.aliexpress.com/item/32966959737.html
As did test with the SSM2167 and works great just never got round to adding the pots so its adjustable.
Had zero noise and loads of gain in that config.
But you can just connect the ADMP404 MEMS Microphone direct from its just the tip of the 3.5mm jack you need as with active you don’t the bias signal from the card as its not a Gnd.
The electrets have an advantage you can get directional noise reduction ones but many of the modules come pre-soldered an omni-directional.
The MAX9814 is often like that pre-soldered but also the capacitor they have chosen is the same as Adafruit and really to low as the attack & delay is really to fast for voice.
MAX9812 don’t have AGC and often don’t come with pre-soldered electret which is actually an advantage if you wish to use a directional noise reduction type electret.
I am in the UK and since Brexit a lot of the product previously purchased no longer delivers to the UK so depending where you are its prob better for you to search out the bargains yourself.
@fastjack found a great looking module low cost and prob high gain but again doesn’t deliver to the UK
Again its just the tip of the 3.5mm jack needed as the collar of the bias isn’t needed with a active module.
I never bothered with Sox just the Speex-AGC alsa-plugin but you have to compile and install the alsa-plugins again as raspberry has the wrong version of Speex-dsp.
Noise suppression algs can effect the spectrogram if the model was recorded without them so don’t use.
I will do some recordings with the ADMP404 MEMS direct and also ADMP404 MEMS & SSM2167 and post distance and what my Db meter records.
I need to get some Max9812 as still have x10 directional electrets on my desk doing nothing but the comparison might be interesting.
Suggest you install the Speex-AGC plugin and give it a go.